Xylobiose, an alternative sweetener, ameliorates diabetes-related metabolic changes by regulating hepatic lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice

Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim, Yoo Sun Kim, Jae Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim

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27 Scopus citations


Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of D-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, XB supplementation decreased the levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. The expression levels of miR-122a and miR-33a were higher and lower in the XB group, respectively. In the liver, expressions of the lipogenic genes, including, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1C), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1), as well as oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase, were also regulated by XB supplementation. XB supplementation inhibited the mRNA expressions levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). These data demonstrate that XB exhibits anti-diabetic, hypolipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects via regulation of the miR-122a/33a axis in db/db mice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number791
Issue number12
StatePublished - 5 Dec 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the High Value-Added Food Technology Development Program (Project Number: 313024-03-2-HD040), Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea, and by Brain Korea 21 Plus (Project Number: 22A20130012143).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Inflammation
  • Lipogenesis
  • MicroRNA
  • Xylobiose
  • db/db mice


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