Wireless portable bioelectronic nose device for multiplex monitoring toward food freshness/spoilage

Kyung Ho Kim, Dongseok Moon, Jai Eun An, Seon Joo Park, Sung Eun Seo, Siyoung Ha, Jinyeong Kim, Kayoung Kim, Sooyeol Phyo, Jiwon Lee, Hye Yeon Kim, Moonil Kim, Tai Hyun Park, Hyun Seok Song, Oh Seok Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Monitoring food freshness/spoilage is important to ensure food quality and safety. Current methods of food quality monitoring are mostly time-consuming and labor intensive processes that require massive analytical equipment. In this study, we developed a portable bioelectronic nose (BE-nose) integrated with trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) nanodiscs (NDs), allowing food quality monitoring via the detection of food spoilage indicators, including the biogenic amines cadaverine (CV) and putrescine (PT). The olfactory receptors TAAR13c and TAAR13d, which have specific affinities for CV and PT, were produced and successfully reconstituted in ND structures. TAAR13 NDs BE-nose-based side-gated field-effect transistor (SG-FET) system was constructed by utilizing a graphene micropattern (GM) into which two types of olfactory NDs (TAAR13c ND and TAAR13d ND) were introduced, and this system showed ultrahigh sensitivity for a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 fM for CV and PT. Moreover, the binding affinities between the TAAR13 NDs and the indicators were confirmed by a tryptophan fluorescence quenching assay and biosimulations, in which the specific binding site was confirmed. Gas-phase indicators were detected by the TAAR13 NDs BE-nose platform, and the LODs for CV and PT were confirmed to be 26.48 and 7.29 ppb, respectively. In addition, TAAR13 NDs BE-nose was fabricated with commercial gas sensors as a portable platform for the measurement of NH3 and H2S, multiplexed monitoring was achieved with similar performance, and the change ratio of the indicators was observed in a real sample. The integration of commercial gas sensors on a BE-nose enhanced the accuracy and reliability for the quality monitoring of real food samples. These results indicate that the portable TAAR13 NDs BE-nose can be used to monitor CV and PT over a wide range of concentrations, therefore, the electronic nose platform can be utilized for monitoring the freshness/spoilage step in various foods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114551
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Biogenic amines
  • Electronic nose
  • Gas monitoring
  • Gas sensor
  • Olfactory receptor
  • Portable device


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