Why and how do sojourners talk about Macao? Effects of perceived risk and expected benefit

Suh Hee Choi, Lisa Tam, Kadir Jun Ayhan, Dong Min Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Due to the growing popularity of digital platforms, social media conversations have been proposed and used as an indicator of public diplomacy outcomes. Despite this, existing research has found that most publics were unwilling to engage with foreign countries on social media. Considering this, this study seeks to identify factors that motivate and/or constrain individuals’ engagement in conversations about foreign countries. A survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted with sojourners who temporarily resided in Macao. When choosing how (i.e., channels) and what (i.e., content) to transmit, they managed the tension between perceived risk and expected benefit. Reflecting the theory of planned behavior, where individuals’ motivation (i.e., intended outcomes) and perceived behavioral control (i.e., ability to manage the tension between perceived risk and expected benefit to achieve such intended outcomes) predict behavioral intentions, the findings unveil the limitations of monitoring and tracking social media conversations as an indicator of public diplomacy outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-51
Number of pages23
JournalAsian International Studies Review
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
*****Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, College of Sciences, Kyung Hee University, South Korea; Macao Institute for Tourism Studies*****, China; E-mail: suhhee@khu.ac.kr *****Lecturer, School of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations, QUT Business School, Australia; E-mail: l.tam@qut.edu.au *****Corresponding author, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of International and Area Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, South Korea; E-mail: kadirayhan@gmail.com *****Assistant Professor, Department of Geography Education, Catholic Kwandong University, South Korea; E-mail: dr.dongminlee@gmail.com *****Suh-hee Choi was previously affiliated with Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, and this research was partly supported by Macao Institute for Tourism Studies. DOI: 10.16934/isr.20.2.201912.29

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Ewha Womans University Graduate School of International Studies. All rights reserved.


  • Digital media
  • Expected benefit
  • Information selection
  • Information transmission
  • Macao
  • Perceived risk
  • Sojourners


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