Who’s global age-friendly cities guide: Its implications of a discussion on social exclusion among older adults

Soondool Chung, Miri Kim, Erica Y. Auh, Nan Sook Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This study analyzed the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide to observe its role in embodying social inclusion of older adults in attempts to prevent social exclusion. Social exclusion refers to the marginalization of individuals and groups from important economic and social opportunities in the society. Many aging societies are implementing social inclusion of older adults as one of their key policy agendas to create a more sustainable and healthy society, in recognition that age functions as one of the essential factors accelerating social exclusion and declining physical and mental health of those affected. In order to explore the pertinence of the WHO guidelines to social inclusion of older adults, content analysis was conducted on each checklist item in the WHO guideline to identify its relation to the four dimensions of social exclusion, which are social interaction, production, consumption, and political engagement. The results showed comprehensive coverage of each dimension by the guideline, although the relative importance of each dimension was unequal. Additional insights were suggested to promote further social inclusion of older adults in the context of an age-friendly environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8027
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number15
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Age-friendly environment
  • Older adults
  • Social exclusion
  • Social inclusion


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