What determines international tourist arrivals to Peru? A gravity approach

Maritza Elizabeth Bermeo Velasquez, Jinhwan Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Using the gravity model, this study examines Peru's tourism patterns by analyzing a panel dataset of the country's international tourism flows from 59 countries over 22 years (1990-2011). The empirical results for the entire dataset are consistent with the general prediction of the gravity model (positive coefficients for economic size and negative coefficients for distance). Peru mainly has potential to expand tourism flows from European countries like Portugal, Belgium, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Germany and France. Although Peru offers no visa requirements for such countries, this policy seems to not be sufficient to increase tourism flows from them. Further collaboration between Peru and its neighboring countries in providing coordinated investment in transport infrastructure is necessary to create economies of scale that allow benefits from the cluster effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-369
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Area Studies Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Ewha Womans University Research Grant of 2012.


  • Cluster effect
  • Gravity model
  • Peru
  • Tourism patterns


Dive into the research topics of 'What determines international tourist arrivals to Peru? A gravity approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this