A robust real-time video communication service over the Internet in a distributed manner is an important challenge, as it influences not only the current Internet structure but also the future Internet evolution. In this context, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are playing an imperative position for providing efficient video transmission over the Internet. Recently, several P2P video transmission systems have been proposed for live video streaming services or video-on-demand services over the Internet. In this paper, we describe and discuss existing video streaming systems over P2P. Efficient (delay tolerant and intolerant) data sharing mechanisms in P2P and current video coding trends are elaborated in detail. Moreover, video streaming solutions (live and on-demand) over P2P from the perspective of tree-based and mesh-based systems are explained. Finally, the conclusion is drawn with key challenges and open issues related to video streaming over P2P.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012-0002917) and in part by the MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program supervised by the NIPA (National IT Industry Promotion Agency) (NIPA-2010-C1090-1101-0006) and EU project SARACEN.
- Distributed networks
- Incentive mechanisms
- Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks
- Quality of experience (QoE)
- Scalable video coding (SVC)
- Video streaming