In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
A part of this study was carried out while one of the authors (N.K. Kim) was in NIES by the Global Internship Program from National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea. This work was also supported by the NRF grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) ( 2011-0016297 and 2009-0083527 ) and the Global Environment Research Fund (S-7) by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan . We would like to acknowledge Profs. A. Richter and J. P. Burrows of University of Bremen for providing satellite observation data of GOME and SCIAMACHY.
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- NO emission inventories
- North Korea
- REAS 1.1
- Top down NO estimation