Variations in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in relation to smoking and the modification effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1

Yun Chul Hong, Jong Han Leem, Hye Sook Park, Kwan Hee Lee, Seon Joo Lee, Cheol Koo Lee, Daehee Kang

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The measurement of the pyrene metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene, in human urine has been used to assess recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of this study was to see whether genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes could explain some of the variation in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) excretion in relation to smoking. Forty-seven male hospital workers, who were not occupationally exposed to PAH, participated in this study. The urine samples were analyzed for 1-OHPG utilizing immunoaffinity chromatography and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism was performed by PCR. The 1-OHPG concentration in the urine of the hospital workers was 0.57±0.85 μmol/mol creatinine, and ranged from 0.02 to 5.04 μmol/mol creatinine. Cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with urinary 1-OHPG (r=0.3976, P=0.0056). The 1-OHPG excretion in GSTM1-deficient smokers was higher than that in GSTM1-positive smokers. On the other hand, 1- OHPG excretion was higher in GSTT1-positive smokers than in GSTT1-deficient smokers. It is important to note the variability of individual PAH metabolite excretion due to different GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-223
Number of pages7
JournalToxicology Letters
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 5 Sep 1999

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by a grant from the Seoul National University College of Medicine Research Fund, 1998. The authors thank Dr. Regina Santella, Columbia University, New York, for kindly providing the 8E11 hybridoma cell line.


  • 1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide
  • GSTM1
  • GSTT1
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Smoking


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