Purpose: The aim of this study was to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine the effect of FGFR2 and VEGFR2 expression on treatment outcomes for patients with metastatic or recurrent advanced gastric cancer (AGC) receiving a combination of pazopanib with CapeOx (capecitabine and oxaliplatin). Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label phase II study to determine the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of pazopanib with CapeOx in 66 patients with metastatic or recurrent AGC (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130805). IHC analysis of FGFR2 and VEGFR2 was possible in 54 patients (81.8 %). Results: Among 54 patients, the median age was 51.5 years (range 23–72 years). Male patients were 59.3 %. Seven patients (13.5 %) had tumor tissues that expressed FGFR2 by IHC. No patients had tumors that expressed VEGFR2. Among seven patients with tumors with FGFR2 expression, six achieved partial response (PR) with a 85.7 % response rate and one patient with stable disease. Among 47 patients with tumors without FGFR2 expression, one had complete response and 27 had PR (59.5 %). A significant difference in PFS was seen between patients who were positive and negative for FGFR2 using IHC (8.5 vs. 5.6 months, P = 0.050). By prognostic analysis for PFS, only FGFR2 status by IHC (positive vs. negative) had significant prognostic value for predicting PFS. Conclusions: FGFR2 expression by IHC might be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes of patients with metastatic or recurrent AGC treated with a combination of pazopanib and CapeOx.