Our previous study found that the level of CCN1 increases as osteogenic differentiation progresses in tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs). This study investigated how CCN1 is regulated through HDAC inhibition in TMSCs and their relationship with osteogenesis. Valproic acid (VPA) (1–5 mM), a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, strongly inhibited TMSC proliferation without altering MSC-specific surface markers, CD14, 34, 45, 73, 90 and 105. However, CD146 expression increased at 5 mM VPA. VPA increased osteogenic differentiation of TMSCs but decreased adipogenesis and chondrogenesis, as evidenced by the cell-specific staining of differentiation. The former was validated by the increased osteocalcin (OCN). The changes in CCN1 by VPA was biphasic; it increased until 48 h and decreased thereafter. Knockdown of CCN1 by using siRNA inhibited the osteogenic effect of VPA. VPA had no effect on CCN1 mRNA expres-sion, but inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide showed that VPA slowed down the CCN1 protein degradation. Moreover, overexpression of HDAC1 completely inhibited VPA-induced CCN1. Our results indicate that VPA inhibits the HDAC1, inducing CCN1 protein stability rather than gene expression, thereby promoting osteogenic differentiation of TMSCs. These findings pre-sent the noble implication of VPA as an inhibitor of HDAC1 to facilitate CCN1-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.
|State||Published - 1 Feb 2022|
- Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs)
- Valproic acid (VPA)