Validation of the Athens Insomnia Scale for screening insomnia in South Korean firefighters and rescue workers

Hyeonseok S. Jeong, Yujin Jeon, Jiyoung Ma, Yera Choi, Soonhyun Ban, Sooyeon Lee, Bora Lee, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Sujung Yoon, Jieun E. Kim, Jae ho Lim, In Kyoon Lyoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Purpose: Sleep problems are a major cause of occupational stress in firefighters and rescue workers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) among South Korean firefighters and rescue workers. Methods: Structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires were administered to 221 firefighters and rescue workers. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF36), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test—Consumption (AUDIT-C) were used to examine convergent and divergent validity. Test–retest reliability was calculated from a subsample (n = 24). Analysis of internal consistency, factor analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were conducted. Results: Cronbach’s alpha was 0.88. The mean item-total correlation coefficient was 0.73. The test–retest reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.94). Significant correlations of the AIS with the PSQI, ISI, ESS, and SF36 confirmed convergent validity. Nonsignificant associations of the AIS with the AUDIT-C and socioeconomic status showed divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure. For groups with different symptom severity, group-specific cutoff scores which may improve positive predictive values were suggested. Conclusions: The AIS may be a useful tool with good reliability and validity for screening insomnia symptoms in firefighters and rescue workers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2391-2395
Number of pages5
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - 14 Oct 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the National Emergency Management Agency of South Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


  • Athens Insomnia Scale
  • Firefighter
  • Insomnia
  • Rescue worker
  • Validation


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