Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, asthma, and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly or immunocompromised individuals. An RSV vaccine has yet to be developed; only prophylactic anti-RSV antibody is commercially available. So, we investigated whether our vaccine candidate is able to induce type 1 CD4+ T helper (Th1), CD8+ T-cell responses, and protective immunity without vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) against RSV. Materials and Methods: We used RSV G protein fragment (Gcf A) with recombinant baculovirus capable of expressing the RSV M2 protein (Bac M2) as a vaccine candidate, and injected this vaccine (Gcf A/Bac M2) intramuscularly, and challenged with RSV intranasally into mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, plaque assay, and weight measurement were performed to confirm humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and protective immunity. Results: The Gcf A/Bac M2 formulation induced a stronger IgG response to Gcf A than Gcf A inoculation alone, and the ratio of IgG1/IgG2a indicated that the responses shifted predominantly to Th1. In addition, both RSV G-specific Th1 responses and RSV M2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were induced, and G protein-associated eosinophilic infiltration was suppressed compared to the control group. Moreover, the Gcf A/Bac M2 group showed effective protection after an RSV challenge. Conclusion: Bac M2 could serve as a vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity, and the Gcf A/Bac M2 shows promise as a vaccine candidate for inducing protective immunity without inciting VED.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© Korean Vaccine Society.
- G protein
- Recombinant baculovirus
- Respiratory syncytial virus