Utilizing hedonic frame for projective mapping: A case study with Korean fermented soybean paste soup

Mi Ran Kim, Kwang Pyo Kim, Seo Jin Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Projective mapping (PM) based techniques are frequently used to develop consumer perception maps holistically for identifying and characterizing samples with similar characteristics. In the present study, the criteria for locating samples in projective mapping are narrowed from the original projective mapping methodology. This study proposes the use of a hedonic frame (i.e. reasons for liking similarity), H_PM, and comparing it using a sensory frame (i.e. sensory similarity), S_PM, with the aim of understanding how consumers perceive soups made with various Korean fermented soybean pastes. The participants comprised a total of 69 consumers. Fifteen fermented soybean paste products from different regions of Korea were selected. All consumers evaluated samples using both S_PM and H_PM, which were conducted in separate sessions. The order of the two mapping sessions was balanced between the subjects. In the S_PM method, subjects grouped samples with similar sensory characteristics. In the H_PM method, subjects grouped samples which had similar reasons for liking or disliking on a mapping sheet. Ultra flash profiling was conducted in both S_PM and H_PM after the mapping tasks. Multiple factor analysis was used for statistical analysis. S_PM and H_PM resulted in different product positions. Although some samples shared very similar sensory characteristics with each other in S_PM, distinct differences appeared in the reasons for (dis)liking in H_PM. Critical attributes that affected sample positioning differed when using different criteria for mapping the samples which resulted in discrete perceptual maps of S_PM and H_PM. H_PM can identify important hedonic drivers of samples that may not be caught by a sensory based approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-285
Number of pages7
JournalFood Quality and Preference
StatePublished - Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Sunchang Jangryu Co. We deeply thank the anonymous reviewer for the valuable comments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • Consumer acceptance
  • Hedonic-frame
  • Korean fermented soybean paste
  • Projective mapping


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