Environment-friendly Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells requires the replacement of Cd-containing buffers with non-toxic materials. Zn(O,S) buffers have been developed and yielded even better efficiency than CdS-buffered CIGS thin-film solar cells [23.35%, Ref. ]. In this work, we studied band offsets of Zn(O,S) and CIGS interfaces. The Cd-free buffer layers were deposited with 1.0%, 1.3%, and 1.6% oxygen (O2) gas partial pressure during the deposition. Effects of the oxygen partial pressure on the structure and electronic properties of the devices were investigated by micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. We achieved depth-profiling of spatial work function mapping across the interface between the absorbers and the buffers. The best efficiency sample, grown using 1.3% of oxygen, showed 80 mV spike-like band offsets. We propose that the efficiency can be improved through tailoring of the band offsets at the interface as well as improving the absorber and the buffer materials.
- Ga)Se thin-film solar cells
- Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
- Micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy
- Zn(O,S) buffer layer