Bipolar gradual resistive switching was investigated in ITO/InGaZnO/ITO resistive switching devices. Controlled intrinsic oxygen vacancy formation inside the switching layer enabled the establishment of a stable multilevel memory state, allowing for RESET voltage control and non-degradable data endurance. The ITO/InGaZnO interface governs the migration of oxygen ions and redox reactions within the switching layer. Voltage-stress-induced electron trapping and oxygen vacancy formation were observed before conductive filament electroforming. This device mimicked biological synapses, demonstrating short- and long-term potentiation and depression through electrical pulse sequences. Modulation of post-synaptic currents and pulse frequency-dependent short-term potentiation were successfully emulated in the InGaZnO-based artificial synapse. The ITO/InGaZnO/ITO memristor exhibited spike-amplitude-dependent plasticity, spike-rate-dependent plasticity, and potentiation-depression synaptic learning with low energy consumption, making it a promising candidate for large-scale integration.
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