Precise redox balance is essential for the optimum health and physiological function of the human body. Furthermore, an unbalanced redox state is widely believed to be part of numerous diseases, ultimately resulting in death. In this review, we discuss the relationship between redox balance and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In various animal models, excessive oxidative stress has been associated with increased atherosclerotic plaque formation, which is linked to the inflammation status of several cell types. However, various antioxidants can defend against reactive oxidative stress, which is associated with an increased risk of CVD and mortality. The different cardiovascular effects of these antioxidants are presumably due to alterations in the multiple pathways that have been mechanistically linked to accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation, macrophage activation, and endothelial dysfunction in animal models of CVD, as well as in in vitro cell culture systems. Autophagy is a regulated cell survival mechanism that removes dysfunctional or damaged cellular organelles and recycles the nutrients for the generation of energy. Furthermore, in response to atherogenic stress, such as the generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidized lipids, and inflammatory signaling between cells, autophagy protects against plaque formation. In this review, we characterize the broad spectrum of oxidative stress that influences CVD, summarize the role of autophagy in the content of redox balance-associated pathways in atherosclerosis, and discuss potential therapeutic approaches to target CVD by stimulating autophagy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2020R1A3B2079811 and No. 2021M3E5E7023628) and the Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis (KSOLA2021-01-001).
© 2023 The Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Oxidative stress