Herein, ultrasonication (US)-assisted novel nanomaterial Ti3C2Tx MXene was utilized as a selective adsorbent for treatment of synthetic dyes in model wastewater. Two types of US frequencies, 28 and 580 kHz, were applied to disperse MXene to evaluate the feasibility of US-assisted MXene for wastewater treatment. The physico-chemical properties of MXene after US were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and zeta potential. According to FTIR and XPS, 28 kHz US-assisted MXene had a greater amount of oxygenated functional groups and dispersion compared to 580 kHz US-assisted and pristine MXene. Subsequently, US-assisted MXene was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of positively charged methylene blue (MB) and negatively charged methyl orange. Both 28 and 580 kHz US-assisted MXene showed better adsorption performance for only MB compared to stirring-assisted MXene based on kinetics, isotherms, and several water chemistry factors including solution pH, temperature, ionic strength, and humic acid. Advantages of US-assisted MXene for water treatment are its fast kinetics at low dose and high selectivity for positively charged target compounds (i.e., MB). The main adsorption mechanism between MXene and MB was electrostatic interaction (attraction); however, physical properties (i.e., aggregation kinetics and hydrodynamic diameter), measured via dynamic light scattering, were also found to be critical factors in controlling the adsorption performance of the system. Lastly, US-assisted MXene exhibited a high regeneration property, based on 4th adsorption-desorption cycles.
- Dynamic light scattering
- Ultrasound-assisted adsorption