Two types of religious internalization are conceptualized that are presumed to vary in their relative autonomy. Introjection represents a partial internalization of beliefs and is characterized by self- and other-approval-based pressures. Identification represents adoption of beliefs as personal values and is characterized by greater volition. These 2 types of internalization are compared conceptually and empirically with existing measures of religious orientation and are used to predict varied functional outcomes. Results in 4 independent Christian samples show systematic construct validities and relations with mental health and self-related outcomes. Also, evangelical teenagers are shown to be higher on both introjection and identification than controls. Results are discussed both in terms of prior approaches to the psychology of religion and the significance of internalization for personality functioning.