We investigated the biogeography of Asian Corbicula using mitochondrial gene sequence variation for Corbicula members sampled from 24 localities of eight Asian regions. A total of 210 individuals were genetically characterized by examining sequence variations of a 614 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI dataset revealed that Corbicula members are subdivided into two well-supported clades: estuarine and freshwater. A robust dichotomy between the Japanese/Korean (Corbicula japonica) and Chinese (Corbicula fluminalis) estuarine forms was evident, suggesting that these two regional populations represent a deep phylogeographic split. Our mitochondrial gene tree showed that among the freshwater members, two Corbicula mitochondrial lineages are the most common, having attained extensive geographic distribution in the Asian freshwater environment. While the present study provides significant biogeographic information on Asian Corbicula, a comprehensive phylogenetic study by cross-referencing the mitochondrial-based Corbicula phylogeny with nuclear gene data is required to fully understand the evolutionary origin(s) of triploidy/clonality in this genus.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to D.O’ Foighil and T. Lee for extensive comments. Constructive suggestions from the two anonymous reviewers have also considerably improved the manuscript. We additionally thank A. Matsukuma, T. Kimura, Z. Gong, J. Fang, H.A. Jambari, R.M. Marwoto, Y.-W. Chiu, and R. Araujo for providing Corbicula samples for this study. This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant (KRF-2002-070-C00080).
- COI mtDNA
- Molecular biogeography