Twenty-Five Year Trend Change in the Etiology of Pediatric Invasive Bacterial Infections in Korea, 1996–2020

Seung Ha Song, Hyunju Lee, Hoan Jong Lee, Eun Song Song, Jong Gyun Ahn, Su Eun Park, Taekjin Lee, Hye Kyung Cho, Jina Lee, Yae Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Jong Hyun Kim, Hyun Mi Kang, Joon Kee Lee, Chun Soo Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Hwang Min Kim, Jae Hong Choi, Byung Wook Eun, Nam Hee KimEun Young Cho, Yun Kyung Kim, Chi Eun Oh, Kyung Hyo Kim, Sang Hyuk Ma, Hyun Joo Jung, Kun Song Lee, Kwang Nam Kim, Eun Hwa Choi

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3 Scopus citations


Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). Methods: A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. Results: A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = −0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = −0.922, P < 0.001), while trend toward an increase in the relative proportion of S. aureus (rs = 0.850, P < 0.001), S. agalactiae (rs = 0.615, P = 0.001), and S. pyogenes (rs = 0.554, P = 0.005). Conclusion: In the proportion of IBIs over a 24-year period between 1996 and 2019, we observed a decreasing trend for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae and an increasing trend for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and S. pyogenes in children > 3 months of age.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere127
JournalJournal of Korean Medical Science
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2023

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences


  • COVID-19
  • Children
  • Epidemiology
  • Invasive Bacterial infections


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