Troglitazone enhances the apoptotic response of DLD-1 colon cancer cells to photodynamic therapy

Hyunju Park, Si Hwan Ko, Jae Myun Lee, Jeon Han Park, Youn Hee Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances the apoptotic response of DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The effects of troglitazone, PDT, and troglitazone in combination with PDT on cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in DLD-1 cells. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the tetrazolium-based MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated via cell staining with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC. The levels of pro-caspase-3 were measured via Western blot analyses. Results: Treatment of troglitazone and PDT induced the growth retardation and cell death of DLD-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth and increased the apoptotic response of DLD-1 and resulted in apoptosis rather than necrosis, as shown by PI/annexin V staining and degradation of procaspase-3. Conclusion: These results document the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of PDT in combination with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone and provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of combination treatment in colon cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1494-1499
Number of pages6
JournalYonsei Medical Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by Korean Government (MSIP) Grant 2012R1A5A2A32671866.

Publisher Copyright:
© Yonsei University College of Medicine 2016.


  • Apoptosis
  • PDT
  • Troglitazone


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