Trichlorfon inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells

Whasun Lim, Yikyung An, Changwon Yang, Fuller W. Bazer, Gwonhwa Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide widely used in agriculture. Additionally, it is applied to pigs for control of endo- and ectoparasites. Previous studies have shown the effects of trichlorfon in pigs during late stages of gestation; however, little is known about its effects during early pregnancy, including implantation and placentation. We investigated whether trichlorfon affects proliferation and apoptosis of porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Trichlorfon inhibited the proliferation of pTr and pLE cells, as evidenced by cell cycle arrest, and altered the expression of proliferation-related proteins. In addition, trichlorfon induced cell death and apoptotic features, such as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation, in pTr and pLE cells. Moreover, trichlorfon treatment decreased concentrations of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm in both cell lines and increased concentrations of Ca2+ in mitochondria of pTr cells. Trichlorfon inhibited the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in pTr and pLE cells. Therefore, we suggest that trichlorfon-treated pTr and pLE cells exhibited abnormal cell physiology which might lead to early pregnancy failure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-564
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
StatePublished - Nov 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare (grant number : No. HI15C0810 awarded to G.S. and HI17C0929 awarded to W.L.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • Apoptosis
  • Cell cycle arrest
  • Pig
  • Trichlorfon
  • Trophoblast
  • Uterine luminal epithelium


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