Triacylglycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol isolated from bovine udder and its synthetic enantiomer can potentiate the mitogenic activity for mouse peritoneal macrophages

Jeong S. Suh, Jin Kwon, Jae S. Eun, Yun J. Lee, Jin K. Limb, Soo Y. Ko, So Y. Han, Yun S. Bae, Gil Ja Jhon

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5 Scopus citations

Abstract

A factor stimulating a mitogenic activity of peritoneal macrophages is purified from bovine udder. It is identified as a triglyceride, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (rac-MADG). In this study, its enantiomers, R-(+)-and S-(-)-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol (R-(+)-MADG, S-(-)-MADG) are synthesized. Among them, R-(+)-MADG enantiomer turns out to increase a mitogenic activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Also, (S)-(-)-MADG shows a low mitogenic activity. Treatment of a macrophage with R-(+)-MADG increases reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, treatment of macrophages with antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suppresses the R-(+)-MADG-dependent macrophage proliferation. Results show that the generation of ROS induces in R-(+)-MADG-dependent cell signaling. Treatment of a macrophage with R-(+)-MADG increases the activity of protein kinase C (PKC). Treatment of macrophages with calphostin C inhibits R-(+)-MADG-induced macrophage proliferation. Results suggest that R-(+)-MADG enhances the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates the macrophage growth. In conclusions, R-(+)-MADG accelerates the production of ROS and increases the activity of PKC to eventually stimulate macrophage cell growth. The existence of rac-MADG in bovine udder and milk provides passive protection for the neonate and immunostimulatory capabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-422
Number of pages8
JournalCellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2003

Keywords

  • 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor
  • Peritoneal macrophage
  • Protein kinase C
  • Reactive oxygen species

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