Background For all countries, information on pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections is important in order to develop proper strategies for preventing and treating nosocomial infections. Aim To assess the change in frequencies and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing device-associated infections (DAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) in South Korea between July 2006 and June 2014. Methods Data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) were analysed, including three major DAI types in ICUs. Findings The frequency of Gram-negative bacteria gradually increased for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (from 24.6% to 32.6% and from 52.8% to 73.5%, respectively). By contrast, the frequency of Gram-positive bacteria decreased from 58.6% to 49.2% for CLABSI, and from 44.3% to 23.8% for VAP (P < 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent causative pathogen in CLABSI throughout the surveillance period, but for VAP was replaced as the most frequent pathogen by Acinetobacter baumannii as of 2010. Candida albicans was the most frequent pathogen for catheter-associated urinary tract infection. The meticillin resistance rate in S. aureus decreased from 95% to 90.2% (P < 0.001); amikacin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli decreased from 43.8% to 14.7% and from 15.0% to 1.8%, respectively (P < 0.001); imipenem resistance in A. baumannii increased from 52.9% to 89.8% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The proportion of Gram-negative bacteria as nosocomial pathogens for CLABSI and VAP has increased. The prevalence of A. baumannii causing DAIs in Korean ICUs has increased rapidly, as has the rate of carbapenem resistance in these bacteria.
- Device-associated infections
- Healthcare-associated infection