Background aims. Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from human palatine tonsils (tonsillar MSC, T-MSC) have been isolated, whether T-MSC isolated from multiple donors are feasible for cell banking has not been studied. Methods. T-MSC before and after a standard protocol of cryopreservation and thawing were assessed regarding several basic characteristics, including colony-forming unitfibroblast features, MSC-specific surface antigen profiles, and inhibition of alloreactive T-cell proliferation. In vitro mesodermal differentiation potentials to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes were detected by staining with either cell-specific dyes or antibody after incubation with each appropriate differentiation medium. Expression of mesoderm-specific genes was also quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Expression profiles of endoderm-specific genes were identified by reverse transcription PCR assay. The feasibility of T-MSC in future engraftment was tested by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using genomic DNA isolated randomly from three independent subjects. Results. Both fresh and cryopreservedthawed T-MSC showed a similar high proliferation capacity and expressed primitive cell-surface markers. Hematopoietic cell markers, HLA-DR, co-stimulatory molecules and follicular dendritic cell markers were not detected. In addition to mesodermal differentiation, fresh and cryopreservedthawed cells also underwent endodermal differentiation, as evidenced by the expression of endoderm-specific genes including forkhead box A2 (FoxA2), SIX homeobox 1 (Six1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21). Both cells significantly decreased phorbol 12- myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced T-cell proliferation. T-MSC from three independent donors formed chimerism in STR analysis. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that T-MSC are a potentially good source for MSC banking.
- cryopreservation and thawing
- endodermal differentiation
- immune regulatory properties
- stem cell banking
- tonsil-derived mesenchymal stromal cells