Titanium dioxide inclusion in backing reduce the photoallergenicity of ketoprofen transdermal patch

Yang Gyu Choi, Ji Hae Lee, Il Hong Bae, Young Chang Ah, Han Moe Ki, Jun Ho Bae, Young Ho Park, Kang Choon Lee, Kyung Min Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Ketoprofen (KP) is a widely used transdermal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, increasing number of adverse effect case reports suggests that KP transdermal formulation can cause photoallergic reaction. The photoallergic potential of KP is attributable to the instability of KP under UV/visible light and subsequent formation of reactive degradation products. In this study, we investigated whether the inclusion of titanium dioxide (TiO2), a well-known mineral sunscreen agent, in the KP transdermal patch can prevent the photodegradation of KP and ultimately, can reduce photoallergic reaction. TiO2 inclusion in fabric backing effectively decreased the UV transmission through fabric patch throughout all UVA region from 320 to 380 nm and consistently, KP patch with TiO2 exhibited significantly increased photostability of KP. This enhanced photostability of KP resulted in reduced generation of photodegradation product as determined by HPLC-UV analysis. In a good accordance with these in vitro results, photosensitization test in guinea pig in vivo demonstrated low photoallergic reactions of KP patch with TiO2 compared to KP patch without TiO2, indeed. This study demonstrated that KP transdermal patch with TiO2-included backing can provide with improved photostability and photosafety over conventional fabric KP patch.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-226
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • Ketoprofen
  • Photoallergy
  • Photodegradation
  • Phototoxicity
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Transdermal


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