Titanium dioxide-based sonophotocatalytic mineralization of bisphenol A and its intermediates

Sharmini Sunasee, Kien Tiek Wong, Gooyong Lee, Saravanan Pichiah, Shaliza Ibrahim, Chulhwan Park, Nam Chan Kim, Yeomin Yoon, Min Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with commercially available titanium dioxide (TiO2, P25) was assessed in batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation combining ultrasound (US) and ultraviolet (UV). The kinetics of BPA removal were systematically evaluated by changing operational parameters, such as US frequency and power, mechanical stirring speed, and temperature, but also comparison of single and coupled systems under the optimum US conditions (35 kHz, 50 W, 300 rpm stirring speed, and 20 °C). The combination of US/UV/P25 exhibited the highest BPA removal rate (28.0 × 10−3 min−1). In terms of the synergy index, the synergistic effect of sonophotocatalysis was found to be 2.2. This indicated that sonophotocatalysis has a considerably higher removal efficiency than sonocatalysis or photocatalysis. The removal of BPA was further investigated to identify BPA byproducts and intermediates using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Five main intermediates were formed during sonophotocatalytic degradation, and complete removal of BPA and its intermediates was obtained after 3 h of operation. The degradation pathway of BPA by sonophotocatalysis was also elucidated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15488-15499
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume24
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Keywords

  • Bisphenol A
  • Mineralization
  • Oxidation
  • Sonophotocatalysis
  • TiO
  • Ultrasound

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