Time-sequential change in immune-related gene expression after irradiation in glioblastoma: next-generation sequencing analysis

Yi Jun Kim, Kwangsoo Kim, Soo Yeon Seo, Juyeon Yu, Il Han Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Chul Kee Park, Kye Hwa Lee, Junjeong Choi, Myung Seon Song, Jin Ho Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The time-sequential change in immune-related gene expression of the glioblastoma cell line after irradiation was evaluated to speculate the effect of combined immunotherapy with radiotherapy. The U373 MG glioblastoma cell line was irradiated with 6 Gy single dose. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) transcriptome data was generated before irradiation (control), and at 6, 24, and 48 h post-irradiation. Immune-related pathways were analyzed at each time period. The same analyses were also performed for A549 lung cancer and U87 MG glioblastoma cell lines. Western blotting confirmed the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression levels over time. In the U373 MG cell line, neutrophil-mediated immunity, type I interferon signaling, antigen cross-presentation to T cell, and interferon-γ signals began to increase significantly at 24 h and were upregulated until 48 h after irradiation. The results were similar to those of the A549 and U87 MG cell lines. Without T cell infiltration, PD-L1 did not increase even with upregulated interferon-γ signaling in cancer cells. In conclusions, in the glioblastoma cell line, immune-related signals were significantly upregulated at 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Therefore, the time interval between daily radiotherapy might not be enough to expect full immune responses by combined immune checkpoint inhibitors and newly infiltrating immune cells after irradiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-254
Number of pages10
JournalAnimal Cells and Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Glioblastoma
  • Immune-related signals
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Radiotherapy
  • Transcriptome


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