Time-dependent Ad-Hoc routing structure for delivering delay-sensitive data using UAVs

Jinyi Yoon, Sungju Doh, Omprakash Gnawali, Hyungjune Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


In disaster scenarios where communication networks have broken down, it is important to ensure a reliable data delivery from an emergency operations center to the local target nodes within its effective time limit. We propose a hybrid data delivery mechanism that exploits the load-carry-and-delivery by UAVs with a mixture of localized ad-hoc routing over partially connected terrestrial networks. We aim to achieve reliable on-time data delivery to the target nodes, while preserving the low routing cost. Our proposed routing methodology consists of three steps: 1) localized network construction, 2) network probing by UAVs, and 3) localized ad-hoc routing based on a dynamic depth routing tree depending on the data urgency. Here, we present an innovative cost-effective local data sharing structure called localized minimal routing tree that balances with the direct data delivery by UAVs. After the initial network setup and probing procedure, each UAV makes a series of near-optimal decisions of which grid points to visit considering its localized network topology and data urgency. Our time-dependent routing mechanism dynamically decides data recipient nodes to serve more urgent data delivery with a higher priority at a time. The simulation experiments validated our combined path planning and routing approach, achieving 71% higher reliability than the best possible performance by using only the network nodes and consuming 20% lower energy than the UAV-only approach, while maintaining high reliability. Thus, our work makes a strong case for systematically combining the two approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9000830
Pages (from-to)36322-36336
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Time-dependent routing
  • ad-hoc data delivery
  • delay constraints
  • load-carry-and-delivery
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • vehicular ad-hoc networks


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