No study has compared the prevalence of fretting and corrosion at the trunnion of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) and zirconia ceramic heads in the same patients. The authors sought to compare the prevalence of fretting and corrosion at the trunnion after total hip arthroplasty with a 32-mm Co-Cr or a 32-mm zirconia ceramic head-on-polyethylene bearing. Isolated revision of the acetabular components was performed in 78 patients (156 hips) for polyethylene wear and osteolysis of the acetabulum. Seventy-eight Co-Cr head-titanium alloy stem pairs were compared with 78 zirconia ceramic head-titanium alloy stem pairs in the same patients. Using a visual scoring technique, the 156 head-stem pairs were analyzed for the prevalence of fretting and/or corrosion at the trunnion of the stem and the prevalence of metal transfer to the inner taper of the femoral head. Mean patient age was 48 years, and there were 65 men and 13 women. There was no trunnionosis in either group. Prevalence of fretting (81% vs 83%) and corrosion (4% vs 3%) at the trunnion was not significantly different (P=.518 vs .612, respectively) between the 2 groups. The median fretting scores (1.4±1.1 vs 1.2±1.4 points) and corrosion scores (1.2±0.8 vs 1.3±0.9 points) at the trunnion were not significantly different (P=.893 vs .781, respectively) between the 2 groups. Prevalence of metal transfer to the inner taper of the femoral head (8% vs 10%) and the median metal transfer scores (1.2±0.9 vs 1.4±1.1 points) were not significantly different (P=.213 vs .729, respectively) between the 2 groups.