The worldwide consumption of eggs is very high, leading to about 250,000 tons of eggshell membrane (ESM) waste annually. The present research thus investigated the potential use of ESM as an inexpensive and abundant adsorbent for Reactive Red 120 (RR120) in aqueous solutions, a widespread hydrophilic azo dye used in the textile industry. The chemical structure and morphology of ESM were characterized using various spectroscopic methods, including scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. It was found that natural ESM has a porous structure and surface functional groups that are suitable for the adsorption of the target molecules. The impact of the operating conditions, including the variation in the pH and temperature, on the RR120 sorption capacity and mechanisms of ESM was also analyzed. The maximum monolayer adsorption ability of ESM for RR120 was found to be 191.5 mg/g at 318 K, and the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption of RR120 onto ESM was significantly influenced by the solution pH and the use of NaOH as eluent, indicating that the driving force for this adsorption was electrostatic attraction. Subsequent desorption experiments using 0.1 M NaOH resulted in satisfactory recovery efficiency. Kinetic, isothermic, and thermodynamic analysis was also conducted to support the experimental findings. The experimental results for the adsorption kinetics of ESM were fitted by a pseudo-second-order model. In conclusion, ESM has the potential to be utilized as an eco-friendly and cost-effective adsorbent for the removal of RR120 from aqueous solutions.
- Eggshell membrane
- Reactive red 120