The superior performance of the two-step rating-based double-faced applicability (DFA) test to the check-all-that-apply (CATA) question

Ye Jin Lee, Min A. Kim, Hye Seong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For successful product development and marketing in the food/beverage industry, it is vital to study the product attributes perceived by consumers effectively and efficiently. Recently, a two-step rating-based ‘double-faced applicability’ (DFA) test was developed to study consumer perception and evaluation of product attributes in a quantitative way using d-prime affect magnitude (d'A) based on signal detection theory. This study assessed the product discrimination and characterization performance and interpretationability of d'Aoutput measures of the DFA approach in comparison with the check-all-that-apply (CATA) question. An independent samples design (each N = 108) was used to evaluate eighteen ready-to-drink (RTD) latte products with eighteen attributes. A cluster analysis was also performed, and based on this the relationships of the two output statistics - d'A and total citation frequency were examined. Product attributes were generated based on literature reviews on coffee sensory and emotion studies and sensory/consumer research methodology to encompass consumer perception generally applicable to beverage, and for each attribute, a pair of ‘double-faced’ descriptors in three categories - ‘general weak-strong’, ‘sensory’, and ‘sentimental consequence’ were used for the DFA test. The d'A of the DFA test provided similar product characterization to citation frequency of the CATA question, yet provided better product discrimination and reflected the consumer affective perception for each product independently in a better interpretable way, in valence. It showed a sigmoid relationship with the citation frequency due to its nature of reflecting valence. Overall, the results contribute support for the usefulness of the DFA approach for consumer product testing and suggest the potential of developing a generally applicable DFA test format for studying integrated attribute perception.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104751
JournalFood Quality and Preference
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2018R1D1A1A02086215). Also, this work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01711101)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • CATA question
  • Consumer perception
  • DFA test
  • Measurement
  • Product test
  • Rating
  • Sensory profiling
  • Signal detection theory


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