The study of heat penetration of Kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts

Won Il Cho, Eun Ji Park, Hee Soon Cheon, Myong Soo Chung

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The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-66
Number of pages7
JournalPreventive Nutrition and Food Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2015 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights Reserved.


  • F value
  • Mathematical models
  • Retorted Kimchi soup
  • Stationary and rotary retorts


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