This chapter provides a review of state-of-the-art advances in collecting and analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and how they pertain to exploring a wide range of communication phenomena. After discussing the basic tenets and pitfalls of fMRI, three analytical techniques that have sparked particular attention within communication scholarship are discussed. These are: brain-as-predictor analysis, intersubject correlation analysis, and multivoxel pattern analysis. After illuminating how these approaches have been exploited to tackle communication-relevant questions, several interesting, albeit challenging pathways guiding the future of fMRI within communication science are outlined, emphasizing the combination of brain imaging with computational content analysis, hyperscanning, and neurofeedback.
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