Significance: Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) is produced on stimulation of many cell surface receptors and serves as an intracellular messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events, mostly by oxidizing cysteine residues of effector proteins. Mammalian cells express multiple H 2 O 2 -eliminating enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and peroxiredoxin (Prx). A conserved cysteine in Prx family members is the site of oxidation by H 2 O 2. Peroxiredoxins possess a high-affinity binding site for H 2 O 2 that is lacking in catalase and GPx and which renders the catalytic cysteine highly susceptible to oxidation, with a rate constant several orders of magnitude greater than that for oxidation of cysteine in most H 2 O 2 effector proteins. Moreover, Prxs are abundant and present in all subcellular compartments. The cysteines of most H 2 O 2 effectors are therefore at a competitive disadvantage for reaction with H 2 O 2. Recent Advances: Here we review intracellular sources of H 2 O 2 as well as H 2 O 2 target proteins classified according to biochemical and cellular function. We then highlight two strategies implemented by cells to overcome the kinetic disadvantage of most target proteins with regard to H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation: transient inactivation of local Prx molecules via phosphorylation, and indirect oxidation of target cysteines via oxidized Prx. Critical Issues and Future Directions: Recent studies suggest that only a small fraction of the total pools of Prxs and H 2 O 2 effector proteins localized in specific subcellular compartments participates in H 2 O 2 signaling. Development of sensitive tools to selectively detect phosphorylated Prxs and oxidized effector proteins is needed to provide further insight into H 2 O 2 signaling.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015R1D1A1A09057154 and NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059571) and from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2016 (16173MFDS009).
© Copyright 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
- hydrogen peroxide
- intracellular messenger
- thiol oxidation