The relationship between motivation and achievement in interdependent situations

David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Cary Roseth, Tae Seob Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


This meta-analysis investigates the degree to which achievement is positively associated with motivation within situations characterized by positive, negative, and no interdependence. First, the relative effects of positive, negative, and no interdependence on motivation and achievement were determined. Then the amount of variance in achievement explained by motivation (and vice versa) was calculated. In all, 629 independent studies were included, representing 26 different countries. Results also showed that motivation accounted for 14% of the variance in achievement (and vice versa). When the lowest-quality studies were eliminated, the percentage of achievement explained by motivation increased to 24%. Positive interdependence resulted in greater motivation and achievement than did negative or no interdependence. Implications for theory and application are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)622-633
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Applied Social Psychology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2014


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