Background: Previous studies have suggested the potential association between renal diseases and gallstone. The extent of proteinuria is recognized as a marker for the severity of chronic kidney disease. However, little data is available to identify the risk of incident gallstone according to the level of proteinuria. Methods: Using a data of 207,356 Koreans registered in National Health Insurance Database, we evaluated the risk of gallstone according to the levels of urine dipstick proteinuria through an average follow-up of 4.36 years. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups by urine dipstick proteinuria (negative: 0, mild: 1+ and heavy: 2+ or greater). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model was used to assess the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident cholelithiasis according to urine dipstick proteinuria. Results: The group with higher urine dipstick proteinuria had worse metabolic, renal, and hepatic profiles than those without proteinuria, which were similarly observed in the group with incident cholelithiasis. The heavy proteinuria group had the greatest incidence of cholelithiasis (2.39%), followed by mild (1.54%) and negative proteinuria groups (1.39%). Analysis for multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model indicated that the heavy proteinuria group had higher risk of cholelithiasis than other groups (negative: reference, mild proteinuria: HR 0.97 [95% CI, 0.74-1.26], and heavy proteinuria: HR 1.46 [95% CI, 1.09-1.96]). Conclusion: Urine dipstick proteinuria of 2+ or greater was significantly associated with increased risk for incident gallstone.
- Urine dipstick test