Escherichia coli ferments L-tartrate under anaerobic conditions in the presence of an additional electron donor to succinate. The carrier for L-tartrate uptake and succinate export and its relation to the general C 4-dicarboxylate carriers DcuA, DcuB, and DcuC were studied. The secondary carrier TtdT, encoded by the ttdT (previously called ygjE) gene, is required for the uptake of L-tartrate. The ttdT gene is located downstream of the ttdA and ttdB genes, encoding the L-tartrate dehydratase TtdAB. Analysis of mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR showed that ttdA, ttdB, and ttdT are cotranscribed. Deletion of ttdT abolished growth by L-tartrate and degradation of L-tartrate completely. Bacteria containing TtdT catalyze L-tartrate or succinate uptake and specific heterologous L-tartrate/succinate antiporting. D-Tartrate is not a substrate for TtdT. TtdT operates preferentially in the direction of tartrate uptake and succinate excretion. The Dcu carriers do not support anaerobic growth on L-tartrate or L-tartrate transport. TtdT is related in sequence and function to QtT, which catalyzes heterologous citrate/succinate antiporting in citrate fermentation.