Quite a few patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) are refractory to H1-antihistamines, even though the dose of H1-antihistamines is increased up to 4-fold. CSU that is not controlled with H1-antihistamines results in increased disease burden. Several immunomodulators have been used to manage these patients. The guidelines reported herein are connected to Part 1 of the KAAACI/KDA Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria in Korean Adults and Children, and aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of H1-antihistamine-refractory CSU. Part 2 focuses on the more commonly used additional treatment options for refractory CSU, including omalizumab, cyclosporine, leukotriene receptor antagonist, dapsone, methotrexate, and phototherapy. The evidence to support their efficacy, dosing, safety, and selection of these agents is systematically reviewed. To date, for patients with refractory CSU, the methodologically sound data to evaluate the use of omalizumab has been growing; however, the evidence of other immunomodulators and phototherapy is still insufficient. Therefore, an individualized stepwise approach with a goal of achieving complete symptom control and minimizing side effects can be recommended. Larger controlled studies are needed to elevate the level of evidence to select a rational therapeutic agent for patients with refractory CSU.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This guideline for chronic urticaria was developed with the support of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association.
Copyright © 2020 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology • The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.