Peace processes and international order are interdependent: while the latter provides the normative framework for the former, peacemaking tools and their underlying ideology also maintain international order. They indicate its viability and legitimacy partly by meeting local claims as well as though the maintenance of geopolitical balances. In the emerging multipolar order, the international peace architecture (IPA), dominated by the liberal international order (LIO), is contested through counter-peace processes. These processes contest the nature of the state, state-society relations and increasingly international order itself. This paper investigates the tactics and strategies of regional actors and great powers, where they engage in peace and order related activities or interventions. Given the weakness and inconsistency of the IPA and the LIO, such contestation leads to challenges to international order itself, often at the expense of the claims of social movements and civil society networks.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was funded by UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) under the UK government’s Horizon Europe funding guarantee (grant number 10040966) as part of the Horizon Europe (HORIZON-CL2-2021-DEMOCRACY-0) under grant agreement number 101060809. We also thank the UK government Global Challenges Research Fund (project ‘Innovations in Peacemaking as a Response to Blockages to Counter-Peace’) and The University of Manchester for their generous funding. DCU’s Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences provided additional funding for this study through its Journal Publication Scheme.
© The Author(s) 2023.
- blockages to peace
- failed peacemaking
- international peace architecture
- multipolar order