The impact of data-driven respiratory gating in clinical F-18 FDG PET/CT: comparison of free breathing and deep-expiration breath-hold CT protocol

Seo Young Kang, Byung Seok Moon, Hye Ok Kim, Hai Jeon Yoon, Bom Sahn Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background: Respiratory motion can diminish PET image quality and lead to inaccurate lesion quantifications. Data-driven gating (DDG) was recently introduced as an effective respiratory gating technique for PET. In the current study, we investigated the clinical impact of DDG on respiratory movement in 18F-FDG PET/CT. Method: PET list-mode data were collected for each subject and DDG software was utilized for extracting respiratory waveforms. PET images was reconstructed using Q.clear and Q.clear + DDG, respectively. We evaluated SUVmax, SUVmean, the coefficient of variance (CoV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and tumor heterogeneity using the area under the curve of cumulative SUV histogram (AUC-CSH). Metabolic parameter changes were compared between each reconstruction method. The Deep-Expiration Breath Hold (DEBH) protocol was introduced for CT scans to correct spatial misalignment between PET and CT and compared with conventional free breathing. The DEBH and free breathing (FB) protocol comparison was made in a separate matching cohort using propensity core matching rather than the same patient. Results: Total 147 PET/CT scans with excessive respiratory movements were used to study DDG-mediated correction. After DDG application, SUVmax (P < 0.0001; 8.15 ± 4.77 vs. 9.03 ± 5.02) and SUVmean (P < 0.0001; 4.91 ± 2.44 vs. 5.49 ± 2.68) of lung and upper abdomen lesions increased, while MTV significantly decreased (P < 0.0001; 7.07 ± 15.46 vs. 6.58 ± 15.14). In addition, the percent change of SUVs was greater in lower lung lesions compared to upper lobe lesions. Likewise, the MTV reduction was significantly greater in lower lobe lesions. No significant difference dependent on location was observed in liver lesions. DEBH-mediated CT breathing correction did not make a significant difference in lesion metabolic parameters compared to conventional free breathing. Conclusions: These results suggest that DDG correction enables more corrected quantification from respiratory movements for lesions located in the lung and upper abdomen. Therefore, we suggest that DDG is worth using as a standard protocol during 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-337
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine.


  • Data-driven respiratory gating
  • Deep-expiration breath-hold CT
  • Free breathing CT
  • Respiratory movement


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