The heterogeneity and natural history of mild cognitive impairment of visual memory predominant type

Byoung Seok Ye, Juhee Chin, Seong Yoon Kim, Jung Sun Lee, Eun Joo Kim, Yunhwan Lee, Chang Hyung Hong, Seong Hye Choi, Kyung Won Park, Bon D. Ku, So Young Moon, Sangyun Kim, Seol Hee Han, Jae Hong Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Sun Ah Park, Jee Hyang Jeong, Duk L. Na, Sang Won Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


We evaluate the longitudinal outcomes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) according to the modality of memory impairment involved. We recruited 788 aMCI patients and followed them up. aMCI patients were categorized into three groups according to the modality of memory impairment: Visual-aMCI, only visual memory impaired; Verbal-aMCI, only verbal memory impaired; and Both-aMCI, both visual and verbal memory impaired. Each aMCI group was further categorized according to the presence or absence of recognition failure. Risk of progression to dementia was compared with pooled logistic regression analyses while controlling for age, gender, education, and interval from baseline. Of the sample, 219 (27.8%) aMCI patients progressed to dementia. Compared to the Visual-aMCI group, Verbal-aMCI (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.19-3.28, p = 0.009) and Both-aMCI (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.97-4.71, p < 0.001) groups exhibited higher risks of progression to dementia. Memory recognition failure was associated with increased risk of progression to dementia only in the Visual-aMCI group, but not in the Verbal-aMCI and Both-aMCI groups. The Visual-aMCI without recognition failure group were subcategorized into aMCI with depression, small vessel disease, or accelerated aging, and these subgroups showed a variety of progression rates. Our findings underlined the importance of heterogeneous longitudinal outcomes of aMCI, especially Visual-aMCI, for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in aMCI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-152
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

Bibliographical note

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© 2015 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amnesia
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • neuropsychology


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