The genome sequence of the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobil is ZM4

Jeong Sun Seo, Hyonyong Chong, Hyun Seok Park, Kyoung Oh Yoon, Cholhee Jung, Jae Joon Kim, Jin Han Hong, Hyungtae Kim, Jeong Hyun Kim, Joon Il Kil, Cheol Ju Park, Hyun Myung Oh, Jung Soon Lee, Su Jung Jin, Hye Won Um, Hee Jong Lee, Soo Jin Oh, Jae Young Kim, Hyung Lyun Kang, Se Yong LeeKye Joon Lee, Hyen Sam Kang

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245 Scopus citations


We report the complete genome sequence of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 (ATCC31821), an ethanologenic microorganism of interest for the production of fuel ethanol. The genome consists of 2,056,416 base pairs forming a circular chromosome with 1,998 open reading frames (ORFs) and three ribosomal RNA transcription units. The genome lacks recognizable genes for 6-phosphofructokinase, an essential enzyme in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, and for two enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and malate dehydrogenase, so glucose can be metabolized only by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Whole genome microarrays were used for genomic comparisons with the Z. mobilistype strain ZM1 (ATCC10988) revealing that 54 ORFs predicted to encode for transport and secretory proteins, transcriptional regulators and oxidoreductase in the ZM4 strain were absent from ZM1. Most of these ORFs were also found to be actively transcribed in association with ethanol production by ZM4.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-68
Number of pages6
JournalNature Biotechnology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are very grateful to Peter L. Rogers and Keith Chater for thoughtful advice and discussions throughout the experimentation and manuscript preparation. H.S.K. would especially like to thank President Y.S. Song, for lending the automatic DNA sequencer Licor. This work was supported by an IMT-2000 grant from the Korean Ministry of Information and Communication and the Korean Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy [00016103]. J.S.L., S.J.J., H.W.U., H.J.L., S.J.O. and J.Y.K. were supported by a BK21 Research Fellowship from the Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development.


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