Single-cell profiling methods have had a profound impact on the understanding of cellular heterogeneity. While genomes and transcriptomes can be explored at the single-cell level, single-cell profiling of proteomes is not yet established. Here we describe new single-molecule protein sequencing and identification technologies alongside innovations in mass spectrometry that will eventually enable broad sequence coverage in single-cell profiling. These technologies will in turn facilitate biological discovery and open new avenues for ultrasensitive disease diagnostics.
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