The Effects of Age, Gender, and Hand on Force Control Capabilities of Healthy Adults

Baekhee Lee, Mina Lee, Myeung Sook Yoh, Heecheon You, Hyunji Park, Kihyo Jung, Byung Hwa Lee, Duk L. Na, Geon Ha Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objective: The present study examined the effects of age (20s to 70s), gender (male and female), and hand (dominant and nondominant) on force control capabilities (FCCs) in four force control phases (initiation, development, maintenance, and termination). Background: Normative data of FCCs by force control phase are needed for various populations in age and gender to identify a type of motor performance reduction and its severity. Method: FCCs of 360 participants (30 for each combination of age group and gender) were measured using a finger dynamometer and quantified in terms of initiation time (IT), development time (DT), maintenance error (ME), and termination time (TT). Results: Although gradual increases (1%∼28%) by age were shown in IT, DT, and TT, a dramatic increase in ME was observed among participants in their 50s (26%), 60s (68%), and 70s (160%) compared to those in their 20s∼40s. The most distinctive interaction effect of age and gender was found in ME out of the four FCC measures. Lastly, hand and its related interactions were not found significant. Conclusion: Normative FCC data were established for four age groups (20s∼40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s) and gender. Application: The normative FCC data can be used for evaluating an individual's motor performance, screening patients with brain disorders, and designing input devices triggered and/or operated by the finger.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1348-1358
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Factors
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.


  • finger force
  • normative data
  • quantitative assessment


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