Purpose: To evaluate the effect of zirconia primers, air-abrasion, and tribochemical surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic and self-adhesive resin cement. Methods and Materials: Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with 600-grit silicon carbide paper and then divided into seven groups of 10 and treated as follows: untreated (control), Monobond Plus, Z-PRIME Plus, ESPE Sil with CoJet, air-abrasion, Monobond Plus with air-abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air-abrasion. Self-adhesive resin cement was placed onto the treated Y-TZP specimens for each group. All specimens were thermocycled and subjected to a shear bond strength test. Scanning electron microscope images of the fractured areas and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens were performed. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (p<0.05). Results: The Z-PRIME Plus treatment in combination with air-abrasion produced the highest bond strength (16.50±2.26MPa), followed by airabrasion (10.56±3.32 MPa), and then Monobond Plus combined with air-abrasion (8.93±3.13 MPa), ESPE Sil after CoJet application (8.54±3.98 MPa), and the Z-PRIME Plus group (8.27±2.79 MPa). The control (3.91±0.72 MPa) and Monobond Plus (4.86±1.77 MPa) groups indicated the lowest results (p<0.05). The XRD results showed the peaks of the monoclinic phase for the air-abrasion and CoJet treatment groups compared with the Y-TZP control. Conclusion: Z-PRIME Plus primer application after air-abrasion presented the best results for improving the bond strength between YTZP ceramic and self-adhesive resin cement.