The Effect of Intervention Using a Gamification-Based Morphological Approach on the Writing Skills of Children with Poor Writing Skills

Hyo Hee Kim, Youngmee Lee, Ki Hyung Hong, Young Tae Kim

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2 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of an intervention using the gamification-based morphological approach on the abilities of writing letter-sound non correspondences in children with poor writing skills. Methods: In this study, a multi-probe design was used to verify the effect of intervention. The subjects were three children with poor writing skills (grade 2–3). Their writing skills were examined through tests of treated and untreated graphemes (eojeols) in the baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. In this study, we applied the morphological approach that helps students to write the letter-sound non-correspondences through a game. Additionally, we provided instruction that helps them to learn the morphological knowledge and phonological rules. Each student was trained twice a week for 10–14 sessions. Results: All students were found to have high improvements in the letter-sound non correspondences eojeols. In the generalization phrase, all students showed improvements. In the maintenance phase, all students were found to have a similar effect size. Conclusion: First, gamification-based morphological approach on writing skills promote awareness of morphological knowledge in children with poor writing, and have a positive effect on letter-sound non correspondences eojeols. Additionally, training in applying morphological knowledge promotes children’s writing skills that remain in the early stages of writing development. Second, gamification-based intervention can elicit interest and motivation in children with poor writing and can be repeatedly trained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)348-365
Number of pages18
JournalCommunication Sciences and Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (No. NRF-2018S1A3A2075274).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021. Korean Academy of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • Children
  • Gamification-base
  • Intervention
  • Morpheme knowledge
  • Phonological rules


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