Background The present study investigated the prognostic role of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in patients with node negative, T1c triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) from a nationwide cohort. In addition, the prognostic effect between 3 different chemotherapy regimens were compared in node-negative T1c TNBC patients by subgroup analysis. Methods From the Korean breast cancer registry database, 1,151 T1c node negative TNBC patients were included in this study. Patients were categorized into four treatment groups according to chemotherapy regimen: (1) no chemotherapy, (2) adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide (AC), (3) adriamycin/epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide plus 5-FU (FAC/FEC), and (4) cyclophosphamide plus 5-FU plus methotrexate (CMF). Overall survival (OS) was evaluated between each patient group. Results Of the 1,151 T1c node negative TNBC patients, 1,006 received adjuvant chemotherapy, while 145 received no chemotherapy. Among the patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy the distribution of regimens was: 586 AC, 168 FAC/FEC (126 FAC, 42 FEC), and 252 CMF. The mean follow-up time of the full study cohort was 87.98 ± 33.56 months (range = 6–192 months). Patients in the no chemotherapy group showed significantly worse OS compared to each chemotherapy regimen group. However, when OS was compared between each chemotherapy regimen, no significant difference was found. Conclusions This study showed that adjuvant systemic chemotherapy improved OS in T1c node negative TNBC patients, regardless of chemotherapy between AC, FAC/FEC, and CMF regimens.