The Digitization of Harassment: Women Journalists’ Experiences with Online Harassment in the Philippines

Edson C. Tandoc, Karryl Kim Sagun, Katrina Paola Alvarez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Through interviews with women journalists in the Philippines, this study documents and examines their experiences with online harassment. Three main themes stand out. First, we find that online harassment against journalists follows a systematic process that starts from the top, is followed through by a network of social media personalities and an army of trolls, and then completed by ordinary social media users. Second, cases of harassment impact journalists across multiple levels: individually, interpersonally and professionally. Finally, the participants referred to different ways of coping with what they experienced and identified three sources of support: their peers, their organizations and the public. Harassment against journalists has always been gendered, with women journalists finding themselves at the receiving end more often than do their male counterparts, and this has spilled over into digital platforms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1198-1213
Number of pages16
JournalJournalism Practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Singapore Ministry of Education's Tier 1 Grant [grant number RG150/18].

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Philippines
  • Women journalists
  • digital journalism‌
  • online harassment
  • social media
  • trolls


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