The Design Space of the Auditory Representation of Objects and Their Behaviours in Virtual Reality for Blind People

Joao Guerreiro, Yujin Kim, Rodrigo Nogueira, Seung A. Chung, Andre Rodrigues, Uran Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


As virtual reality (VR) is typically designed in terms of visual experience, it poses major challenges for blind people to understand and interact with the environment. To address this, we propose a design space to explore how to augment objects and their behaviours in VR with a nonvisual audio representation. It intends to support designers in creating accessible experiences by explicitly considering alternative representations to visual feedback. To demonstrate its potential, we recruited 16 blind users and explored the design space under two scenarios in the context of boxing: understanding the location of objects (the opponent's defensive stance) and their movement (opponent's punches). We found that the design space enables the exploration of multiple engaging approaches for the auditory representation of virtual objects. Our findings depicted shared preferences but no one-size-fits-all solution, suggesting the need to understand the consequences of each design choice and their impact on the individual user experience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2763-2773
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to thank the participants of the two user studies. This work was supported in part by FCT through the LASIGE Research Unit (UIDB/00408/2020, UIDP/00408/2020) and the AccessVR project (2022.08286.PTDC). It was also supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2023-2020-0-01460) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information Communications Technology Planning Evaluation).

Publisher Copyright:
© 1995-2012 IEEE.


  • Auditory Feedback
  • Blind
  • Design Space
  • Inclusive Virtual Reality
  • Nonvisual Interaction


Dive into the research topics of 'The Design Space of the Auditory Representation of Objects and Their Behaviours in Virtual Reality for Blind People'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this